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Accueil du site > Equipes > Fonctionnalité et dynamique du tissu cutané (D. Sigaudo-Roussel) > Thématiques > Biomatériaux synthétiques et guidage tissulaire > Synthetic biomaterials and tissue guidance

Synthetic biomaterials and tissue guidance

Project leader : J. Sohier

Persons involved in the project : R. Debret, D. Sigaudo-Roussel, P. Sommer

Significant efforts have been conducted in regenerative medicine to engineer structures that stimulate the regeneration of desired tissues. However, translation to clinical therapies is still lacking, possibly owing to the deficient integration within supportive biomaterials of mechanisms orchestrating tissue formation and homeostasis.

Similarly to mechanical stimulations inspired from physiological conditions, the organization of extracellular matrix is increasingly appearing as a potential regulator of tissue repair. Reproducing a specific extracellular matrix organization could therefore be a powerful tool to induce the formation of a functionally valid tissue. Closely mimicking the structure and organization of extracellular matrix at the cellular level is however a challenge while the knowledge of the interactions between mimetic biomaterials and cells remains limited.
These hurdles become particularly prominent in the context of soft and elastic tissues, such as skin or heart valves, where extracellular matrix fibrillar network is singular in regards of orientated structure and resulting mechanical properties. For such tissues, an important repair limitation resides in the lack of an orderly and orientated reconstitution of a tissue mechanically and structurally valid. This problem is emphasized during aging, as the extracellular matrix structure and organisation evolves towards less elasticity concomitantly to the decrease of repair abilities. These parallel evolutions underline a potential relation between extracellular matrix structure, cells and resulting repair capacities.

To address these issues and better understand the interactions between cells and structure of biomaterials, we develop synthetic structures inspired from the specific fibrillar extracellular matrix organization of various soft and elastic tissues at different stages, using novel polymer formulation approaches.

Doing so allows to study in a rational and incremental fashion the effect of specific structure provided to the cells in regard of synthesis, quality and elasticity of extracellular matrix, at transcriptomic and proteomic levels. Furthermore, we are as well investigating the mechanisms of structure-induced cellular response at epigenetic level. Isolating ECM-related epigenetic markers influenced by synthetic cell environments would provide invaluable insights to monitor and control cellular reaction.